|General programme, activity sheet|
||Thursday 24 October, 2013 17:15 to 17:35
The four arrows of Knowledge applied to Tourism Speaker: Giuseppina Cardia, University Antonio de Nebrija
Authors: Giuseppina Cardia
THE FOUR ARROWS OF THE KNOWLEDGE APPLIED TO TOURISM
An over view of tourism literature covering the period between 1960 and 2000 has shown that tourism studies can be divided into four platforms. These may be labelled as favourable, unfavourable, conciliatory and scientific. The first three evidently offer only a partial vision of tourism since they address only positive impacts, and negative and alternative forms. The last one, known as the scientific platform, shows the process of "Scientification of Tourism" (Jafari, 2001) and has characterized tourism in closing years of the twentieth century by making it an important and legitimate area of investigation in several universities in the world.
However, even this approach, based on a multidisciplinarity vision, is insufficient to build a concept of tourism, which is directed more on a theoretical purpose than a practical one. Indeed, according to Alexandre Panosso (2007), tourism continues to be a field of study for other scientific disciplines and has to develop a theoretical body that will give it the status of a scientific discipline in its own right.
This study aims to adopt a non-reductionist vision of tourism and aims to generate the knowledge of tourism from the Subject as a common denominator of all parties, if one looks at tourism as a system, and to all other scientific disciplines, if one considers tourism as their field of study. Indeed, regardless of the form in which a Subject is living the tourist experience, whether as a tourist, resident, tourism company manager, receptionist, travel agent, pilot, public operator of tourism, or researcher in the field of tourism, and so on, their common meaning is the human being. The human being gives value to all these experiences attributing meaning because they do not possess it for themselves. The human being possesses existential value by himself. In other words, is the human being the unique responsible for the configuration of tourism while the tourist destination, the facilities, the activities of the travel agency, research, and so on, are the content, or the object of Tourism.
The study of tourism based on the Subject is an attempt to find a compromise between researchers that already consider tourism as a science and those who see it as a human activity studied by different scientific disciplines and it will never be a science. It seems that human activity and science are antagonists.
Is science not an activity in which man builds knowledge through experiment and reason? Does the progress of science not depend on human beings?
In case of Tourism, it can be a human activity and science at the same time if it will develop a theoretical body.
However, by applying the transdisciplinarity, the knowledge is not limited exclusively to the science, but it is constructed between disciplines, through disciplines, and beyond each discipline. It is also necessary to point out that the transdisciplinary vision is not antagonistic to Disciplinarity, Multidisciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity vision but they are complementary. Basarab Nicolescu, author of the Transdisciplinarity Manifest (1996), argues that they are “the four arrows of a single bow, that of knowledge”.
In regards to trandisciplinarity, academic disciplines are located on different levels of Reality which passage from one level of Reality to another, is assured by the logic of included middle. This logical axiom favours the reconciliation between two or more contradictory disciplines thus creating a new temporary T term representing the emergence of new non-disciplinary knowledge which is called transdisciplinary Knowledge. The reconciliation between contradictory disciplines is temporary and its process is never ending. Trandisciplinary knowledge has not a final truth and is always evolving and unifying disciplinary knowledge.
Beginning from the transdisciplinarity methodology axioms, the present study aims to demonstrate that only the human being is able to make this “journey” in the construction of knowledge that is always evolving and does not have a final truth. However, man’s passage from on level of reality to another is possible thanks to his qualifying attributes, such as knowledge, values, practices and communication. These attributes are relegated in his culture. Therefore it is through the culture and education to culture that the human being can ascend to the knowledge of tourism and other human activities.
Session 4 – Ontologies, epistemologies and disciplinarity (4)
Place: Main Room