|General programme, activity sheet|
||Thursday 24 October, 2013 16:25 to 16:45
An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of resident’s attitude towards tourism: tourism product and resident’s identification with tourism. Speaker: Esther Martínez-García, Universitat de Girona
Authors: Esther Martínez-Garcia, Josep Mª Raya, Joaquim Majó
A significant literature has analyzed the impacts of tourism on local communities, the resident being acknowledged as a key stakeholder for destinations. Ensuring the sustainability of the tourism industry, specifically in mature tourist destinations where tourism is generating a significant crowding out of resources available for other industries and uses, has led to renewed interest in the impacts of tourism on host communities. Understanding host attitudes towards tourism can be of use in generating strategies which provide further support for the industry (Anderek and Vogt, 2000; Choi and Sirakaya, 2006) and improve residents’ wellbeing (Nawijn and Mitas, 2012).
App’s contributions (App, 1990, 1992) have led to social exchange theory being frequently adopted as the theoretical framework to conceptually explain residents’ attitudes towards tourism (Ap and Crompton 1993; Jurowski, Uysal and Williams, 1997; Latkova and Vogt, 2012; Long, Perdue and Allen, 1990; Pearce, Moscardo and Ross, 1996; Sirakaya, Teye and Sönmez, 2002; Vargas-Sánchez et al 2009; to name but a few). According to said theoretical framework, residents will support tourism and have a positive attitude so long as the benefits received from the tourism activity outweigh the costs.
A review of the literature on residents’ attitudes and perceptions towards tourism based on the social exchange theory shows that to date no study has, to the best of our knowledge, performed an analysis of residents’ attitudes which identifies and quantifies residents’ identification with tourism, a feeling of sympathy and support for tourism. This is an explained part of differences in residents’ attitudes towards tourism which is not explained by observable variables such as socio-demographics, or by the effects of tourism, either positive or negative. We do that for more than one resort, which share some characteristics but differ in the type of main tourist product they offer and the type of tourists they receive.
To perform the analysis, we employed regression models and the Oaxaca-Blinder (1973) decomposition method. To our knowledge, no study has used the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to analyze a tourism issue except for the aforementioned studies on wage differentials. Concerning residents’ attitudes towards tourism, prior studies have employed regression analysis, multivariate techniques (analysis of variance, factor analysis, etc.) and more recently, structural equation modeling in trying to underpin the structural relationship among variables affecting host attitudes (Dyer et al. 2007; Gursoy and Rutherford, 2004; Gursoy, Chi and P. Dyer, 2009; Ko, and Stewart, 2002; Vargas-Sánchez et al 2009; Yoon, Gursoy and Chen, 2001).
The main purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which residents’ attitudes depend on characteristics of the tourism product (tourism effects in the social exchange framework), after controlling for residents’ socio-demographics and other observable characteristics, and to identify and quantify a remaining unexplained differential of residents’ attitude, namely residents’ identification with tourism, or a feeling of sympathy and support for tourism, by means of an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. The analyzed resorts (Lloret de Mar, Sant Feliu de Guixols I Figueres) share a common brand but are offering distinctive tourist products. Different tourist products generate different tourist effects, and according to the social exchange model, tourism effects affect residents’ attitude. Results show that identification is relevant and statistically significant in explaining attitude differentials among residents in the three resorts analyzed, as well as the type of tourism product and its effects on residents. Specifically, more than half of residents’ attitude differences can be attributed to identification while around 40% can be attributed to differences in the type of tourism product.
Session 3 – Sustainability and responsibel tourism
Place: Room SB03