General programme, activity sheet

Thursday 8 September, 2016 13:00 to 13:30 Oral presentation
Age and proficiency effects on children’s use of compensatory strategies in CLIL
Speaker: María Basterrechea Lozano, Universidad del País Vasco

Authors: Francisco Gallardo del Puerto, María Martínez Adrián y María Basterrechea Lozano


The study of second language learners’ strategic competence has increased in recent decades, with a focus on the effect of various individual differences such as age and proficiency (see Magogwe & Oliver, 2007). Young children, as compared to adolescents or adults, do not seem to particularly show an extensive use of compensatory strategies. These strategies have been investigated both in written and oral production in EFL (Cenoz, 2003; Muñoz, 2007; Poulisse & Bongaerts, 1994) and CLIL (Agustín Llach, 2009; Celaya & Ruiz de Zarobe, 2010; Gallardo del Puerto, 2015) contexts. However, few (pseudo)longitudinal have been conducted in CLIL settings (Arratibel Irazusta & Martínez Adrián, 2015; Lázaro Ibarrola & García Mayo, 2012). Besides, there is a lack of research investigating young children’s use of compensatory strategies by means of questionnaires (see Purdie & Oliver, 1999), particularly in CLIL environments. This study analyses the self-reported opinions from a questionnaire on the use of compensatory strategies administered to two different age/proficiency groups of L2 English learners in a primary school CLIL programme. We will explore (i) whether a lower use of strategies is found in older/more proficient L2 learners and (ii) whether there are also qualitative differences in terms of types of strategies. The survey was based on instruments adapted from Kellerman, Bongaerts & Poulisse (1987), Oxford (1989), O’Malley & Chamot (1990), Poulisse (1990) and Yule & Tarone (1990). No differences emerged regarding the total number of compensatory strategies. Nevertheless, the results yielded significant differences in the strategy foreignising, where a less frequent use is reported by older/more proficient learners, supporting recent production findings (Arratibel Irazusta, 2015; Gallardodel Puerto, 2015). Besides, these learners say they use the strategy body language less often, all of which seems to indicate that older/more proficient learners draw on some non-target language-based strategies to a lesser extent in the L2. References Agustín Llach, M. P. (2009). The role of Spanish L1 in the vocabulary use of content and non-content EFL learners. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe & R.M. Jiménez Catalán (Eds.), Content and language integrated learning: Evidence from research in Europe (pp. 112-129). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Arratibel Irazusta, I. & Martínez Adrián, M. (2015). L1 use in the oral production of CLIL learners: A pseudolongitudinal study. Paper presented at the 39th AEDEAN International Conference. Bilbao (Spain). Celaya, M. & Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2010).First language and age in CLIL and non-CLIL contexts. International CLIL Research Journal, 1 (3), 60-6. Cenoz, J. (2003). Cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition: Implications for the organization of the multilingual mental lexicon. Bulletin VALS-ASLA (Vereinigung Für Angewandle Linguistik in Der Schweiz), 78, 1-11. Gallardo del Puerto, F. (2015). L1 influence in CLIL vs. EFL schoolchildren: A study of codeswitching and transfer lapses. Paper presented at the 33th AESLA International Conference. Madrid (Spain). Kellerman, E., Bongaerts, T. & Poulisse, N. (1987). Strategy and system in L2 referential communication. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Second language acquisition in context (pp. 100-112). London: Prentice-Hall. Lázaro Ibarrola, A. & García Mayo, M.P. (2012). L1 use and morphosyntactic development in the oral production of EFL learners in a CLIL context. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 50, 135-60. Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35: 338–352. Muñoz, C. (2007). Cross-linguistic influence and language switches in L4 oral production. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4, 73-94. Poulisse, N. & Bongaerts, T. (1994). First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics, 15 (1), 36-57. O'Malley, J.M. & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R.L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: a synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 17, 235-247. Poulisse, N. (1990). The use of compensatory strategies by Dutch learners of English. Dordrecht: Foris. Purdie, N. & Oliver R. (1999) Language learning strategies used by bilingual school-aged children. System, 27, 375-38. Yule. G. & Tarone, E. (1990) Eliciting the performance of strategic competence. In R. Scarcella, E. Andersen & S. Krashen (Eds.), Developing communicative competence in a second language (pp. 179-184). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
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Teaching and learning of languages
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